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教学探索 | 石家庄二中张静:《高三英语一轮复习读后续写学习点拨》
发布时间:2020-09-28 09:19:14 点击次数:4906

一场新高考(kao)改革给(ji)我们送(song)来了全新题型—读(du)(du)后续(xu)写(xie)(xie)。读(du)(du)后续(xu)写(xie)(xie)不(bu)同(tong)于我们传统的(de)(de)(de)应(ying)用文(wen)写(xie)(xie)作(zuo)(zuo),写(xie)(xie)作(zuo)(zuo)内容极大考(kao)查了同(tong)学(xue)们的(de)(de)(de)思维(wei)创造(zao)能(neng)力,很显然“背范文(wen)”这一传统旧法就(jiu)不(bu)适用于读(du)(du)后续(xu)写(xie)(xie)的(de)(de)(de)学(xue)习(xi)(xi)了,因此(ci)这无疑对同(tong)学(xue)们的(de)(de)(de)英语(yu)学(xue)习(xi)(xi)提出(chu)了更高的(de)(de)(de)要(yao)求。当套路学(xue)习(xi)(xi)不(bu)再适用于新题型,唯有系统的(de)(de)(de)学(xue)习(xi)(xi)写(xie)(xie)作(zuo)(zuo)技能(neng),积累足量的(de)(de)(de)优质语(yu)料(liao),才(cai)是同(tong)学(xue)们提高写(xie)(xie)作(zuo)(zuo)能(neng)力,打赢新高考(kao)这一仗的(de)(de)(de)最优方式(shi)。因此(ci)对于想要(yao)在高三有所成就(jiu)的(de)(de)(de)同(tong)学(xue),第一轮复习(xi)(xi)就(jiu)显得至关重要(yao)了,要(yao)想了解到(dao)第一轮复习(xi)(xi)中读(du)(du)后续(xu)写(xie)(xie)学(xue)习(xi)(xi)究竟应(ying)该(gai)如何规(gui)划,不(bu)妨我们先来揭开其面纱了解一下。

一、读后续写的考(kao)查(cha)形式(shi)及考(kao)查(cha)内容

读(du)后(hou)续(xu)写考查的(de)是(shi)同(tong)学(xue)们(men)英(ying)语综(zong)合能力的(de)运用,其(qi)考查内(nei)(nei)容(rong)顾名思义(yi),先给出前(qian)文(wen),通(tong)过阅读(du)分析其(qi)内(nei)(nei)容(rong)规(gui)律后(hou),再续(xu)写出后(hou)续(xu)的(de)内(nei)(nei)容(rong)。对(dui)于大家来(lai)说,要正确的(de)认识到(dao)前(qian)文(wen)的(de)价值。通(tong)过阅读(du)输入信息,前(qian)文(wen)的(de)内(nei)(nei)容(rong)与(yu)逻(luo)辑在大脑(nao)思维加工(gong)后(hou),形(xing)成一个初步的(de)理(li)解,并(bing)可以判定出其(qi)文(wen)章主旨(zhi),在大脑(nao)中(zhong)建立(li)一个相对(dui)系统的(de)框架,确定续(xu)写的(de)思路及内(nei)(nei)容(rong)。

那续(xu)(xu)写的(de)(de)部(bu)分(fen),则对大(da)家的(de)(de)英语(yu)能力及(ji)语(yu)言(yan)技巧(qiao)提出了新的(de)(de)要(yao)(yao)求。同学们要(yao)(yao)在自己的(de)(de)知识库中寻找适当的(de)(de)词汇,形成准(zhun)确(que)的(de)(de)语(yu)言(yan)构(gou)架(jia)(jia),经过词汇正确(que)应用与语(yu)言(yan)的(de)(de)适当润色,形成基础的(de)(de)续(xu)(xu)写框(kuang)架(jia)(jia),与此(ci)同时,还要(yao)(yao)整理好(hao)续(xu)(xu)写思(si)路,保(bao)证续(xu)(xu)写内容与前(qian)文在内容与方向上都保(bao)持统一连贯(guan)性(xing),可以完(wan)整的(de)(de)表达出题(ti)目要(yao)(yao)求的(de)(de)内容。

续写的(de)(de)部分(fen),综合考(kao)查了阅读理解与写作的(de)(de)能力,其中还考(kao)查了大(da)(da)家对于文章的(de)(de)概括总结能力、语(yu)言组织能力、思(si)维转换能力、对文章逻(luo)辑关系的(de)(de)掌(zhang)控能力。前文内(nei)容的(de)(de)选择,都是(shi)脉(mai)络清晰、主(zhu)次分(fen)明的(de)(de),只要是(shi)认(ren)真阅读,都可以大(da)(da)致(zhi)的(de)(de)确认(ren)出其主(zhu)旨(zhi),大(da)(da)家要做的(de)(de)就要在前文完整的(de)(de)信息(xi)中,提(ti)炼(lian)出观点,为(wei)续写做好内(nei)容与思(si)路上的(de)(de)衔(xian)接。

二、读(du)后续写的(de)备考策(ce)略(lve)及重(zhong)难(nan)点攻破

(一)参考评(ping)分(fen)标(biao)准及其(qi)解读(du)

要想得(de)到高(gao)分(fen)(fen),就要了解在续写中(zhong)的评分(fen)(fen)标(biao)准,并(bing)根(gen)据得(de)分(fen)(fen)点去进行(xing)有目(mu)的的复(fu)习(xi):

1.本题(ti)总(zong)分为(wei)25分,按5个档次给分。

2.评(ping)分时,先(xian)根据所续(xu)写(xie)短(duan)文的(de)内(nei)容和语言初步(bu)确(que)定其所属(shu)档(dang)次,然后(hou)以该档(dang)次的(de)要求(qiu)来衡量、确(que)定或调整档(dang)次,最后(hou)给分。

3.词(ci)数少(shao)于120的,酌(zhuo)情扣(kou)分。

4.评分时,应主要从(cong)以下四个方面(mian)考虑:

①与(yu)所给短文及段落开头语的衔接(jie)程度(du);

②续写内容的丰富性、合理性;

③应(ying)用语法结构和(he)词汇(hui)的丰富性和(he)准确性;

④上(shang)下文的连(lian)贯性。

各档次的给分(fen)范围(wei)和根据评分(fen)标(biao)准(zhun)的各项要求,我(wo)们可将评价标(biao)准(zhun)划(hua)分(fen)为(wei)(wei)四(si)个维度。第(di)一(yi)(yi)(yi),情节内(nei)(nei)容(rong)方面,续写(xie)内(nei)(nei)容(rong)是否能(neng)(neng)(neng)涵盖全部写(xie)作要点(dian);第(di)二,语(yu)言表达方面,行(xing)文(wen)(wen)是否流畅,能(neng)(neng)(neng)否使(shi)用非谓语(yu)动词,虚(xu)拟语(yu)气,倒装等(deng)高(gao)级语(yu)法;第(di)三,情感(gan)升华(hua)方面,能(neng)(neng)(neng)否基于(yu)特定真实生(sheng)活情景,准(zhun)确理解主人公的思想感(gan)情;第(di)四(si),篇章结构(gou)方面,上下文(wen)(wen)是否连贯,续写(xie)内(nei)(nei)容(rong)风格(ge)与(yu)原文(wen)(wen)匹配(pei)度如何,就(jiu)这一(yi)(yi)(yi)点(dian)我(wo)们以《2021年(nian)普通高(gao)等(deng)学校招生(sheng)全国统(tong)一(yi)(yi)(yi)考(kao)试模拟演练(lian)》(八省联考(kao)试卷)续写(xie)题(ti)为(wei)(wei)例,结合评分(fen)标(biao)准(zhun)来(lai)进行(xing)简(jian)单分(fen)析(xi):

During this past year, I’ve had three instances of car trouble. Each time these things happened, I was sick of the way most people hadn’t bothered to help. One of those times, I was on the side of the road for close to three hours with my big Jeep. I put signs in the windows, big signs that said NEED A JACK (千斤(jin)顶), and offered money. Nothing. Right as I was about to give up, a Mexican family in a small truck pulled over, and the father bounded out.

He sized up the situation and called for his daughter, who spoke English. He conveyed through her that he had a jack but that it was too small for the Jeep, so we would need something to support it. Then he got a saw (锯子) from the truck and cut a section out of a big log on the side of the road. We rolled it over and put his jack on top, and we were in business.

I started taking the wheel off, and then, if you can believe it, I broke his tire iron. No worries: He handed it to his wife, and she was gone in a flash down the road to buy a new tire iron. She was back in 15 minutes. We finished the job, and I was a very happy man.

The two of us were dirty and sweaty. His wife prepared a pot of water for us to wash our hands. I tried to put a $20 bill in the man’s hand, but he wouldn’t take it, so instead I went up to the truck and gave it to his wife as quietly as I could. I asked the little girl where they lived. Mexico, she said. They were in Oregon so Mommy and Daddy could work on a fruit farm for the next few weeks. Then they would go home.

Para 1: When I was about to say goodbye, the girl asked me if I’d had lunch.

Para 2: After they left, I got into my Jeep and opened the paper bag.

前(qian)文(wen)故(gu)(gu)事双(shuang)方(fang)主(zhu)人(ren)公(gong)身份是(shi)a Mexican family和“我”an American,续写(xie)(xie)第(di)一(yi)段首句(ju)提(ti)(ti)出(chu)了(le)have lunch与否(fou)的(de)问(wen)题(ti),不少同(tong)学在写(xie)(xie)作(zuo)时写(xie)(xie)到Absolutely not,自然就(jiu)出(chu)现了(le)第(di)二个写(xie)(xie)作(zuo)要(yao)点,如何解(jie)决lunch的(de)问(wen)题(ti)。为了(le)烘托主(zhu)人(ren)公(gong)“我”对(dui)墨(mo)西(xi)哥家庭的(de)感激(ji)有(you)同(tong)学提(ti)(ti)笔就(jiu)写(xie)(xie)出(chu)了(le)I invited them to have an abundant lunch in a famous local restaurant.的(de)剧(ju)情(qing),看似(si)合理,却忽(hu)略(lve)了(le)前(qian)文(wen)的(de)文(wen)化背(bei)景。我们知道对(dui)于外(wai)国(guo)来说,lunch多(duo)为简(jian)餐,dinner才是(shi)一(yi)日三餐中最丰盛的(de)一(yi)餐,因此这样的(de)中式(shi)剧(ju)情(qing)很显然不符合前(qian)文(wen)外(wai)国(guo)主(zhu)人(ren)公(gong)的(de)故(gu)(gu)事背(bei)景。更甚(shen)者(zhe),有(you)同(tong)学甚(shen)至写(xie)(xie)出(chu)了(le)15 minutes later, we got to her hometown.的(de)神剧(ju)情(qing),恐怕(pa)早已经把主(zhu)人(ren)公(gong)双(shuang)方(fang)的(de)异(yi)国(guo)身份抛之脑后了(le)吧。

(二)准(zhun)备工作

第一,提升阅读(du)(du)(du)能(neng)(neng)力和(he)(he)信息(xi)捕捉能(neng)(neng)力。读(du)(du)(du)后(hou)(hou)续写(xie)(xie),读(du)(du)(du)是(shi)(shi)第一步,同(tong)学(xue)们(men)(men)在(zai)完成原文(wen)(wen)阅读(du)(du)(du)后(hou)(hou)要顺利捕捉到六大要素信息(xi)—when, why, who, what, where, how。只有这(zhei)样才(cai)可(ke)以帮助我们(men)(men)清晰文(wen)(wen)章脉络和(he)(he)故(gu)事走向,以此来续写(xie)(xie)出与(yu)前文(wen)(wen)情(qing)节(jie)连贯的(de)(de)(de)后(hou)(hou)文(wen)(wen)。在(zai)此,笔者建议(yi)同(tong)学(xue)们(men)(men)要扩(kuo)充自(zi)己的(de)(de)(de)课外阅读(du)(du)(du)量(liang),最典(dian)型的(de)(de)(de)就是(shi)(shi)外文(wen)(wen)小(xiao)说和(he)(he)短篇记叙文(wen)(wen)的(de)(de)(de)阅读(du)(du)(du),比如大家耳熟能(neng)(neng)详的(de)(de)(de)《哈利波(bo)特(te)》,《了不(bu)起的(de)(de)(de)盖茨比》等经典(dian)文(wen)(wen)学(xue)作品。读(du)(du)(du)什(shen)么,读(du)(du)(du)其(qi)中的(de)(de)(de)各类(lei)描(miao)写(xie)(xie)和(he)(he)衔接,例如在(zai)《哈利波(bo)特(te)》中便有许多的(de)(de)(de)动(dong)作描(miao)写(xie)(xie)和(he)(he)衔接,这(zhei)些(xie)都是(shi)(shi)同(tong)学(xue)们(men)(men)当下最需要的(de)(de)(de)养分。其(qi)次,同(tong)学(xue)们(men)(men)在(zai)阅读(du)(du)(du)选材(cai)时(shi),可(ke)以选择一些(xie)趣味性(xing)话题的(de)(de)(de)材(cai)料。风(feng)趣的(de)(de)(de)阅读(du)(du)(du)材(cai)料更(geng)能(neng)(neng)激发(fa)大家的(de)(de)(de)阅读(du)(du)(du)兴趣和(he)(he)探索欲望。最后(hou)(hou),因为同(tong)学(xue)们(men)(men)生活(huo)(huo)阅历(li)的(de)(de)(de)欠(qian)缺容(rong)易造成续写(xie)(xie)文(wen)(wen)章与(yu)原文(wen)(wen)脱节(jie),故(gu)情(qing)景贴近(jin)生活(huo)(huo)的(de)(de)(de)阅读(du)(du)(du)材(cai)料对于我们(men)(men)就显得至关(guan)重要了,要记住我们(men)(men)是(shi)(shi)活(huo)(huo)生生的(de)(de)(de)人,是(shi)(shi)有生活(huo)(huo)的(de)(de)(de)人,一切的(de)(de)(de)发(fa)挥创(chuang)造还是(shi)(shi)要符(fu)合生活(huo)(huo)的(de)(de)(de)逻(luo)辑,这(zhei)样才(cai)能(neng)(neng)与(yu)主人公发(fa)生情(qing)感共鸣,更(geng)深入(ru)的(de)(de)(de)去理解其(qi)思想情(qing)感。正所谓(wei)见多识广(guang),见多了高质(zhi)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)文(wen)(wen)章,同(tong)学(xue)们(men)(men)的(de)(de)(de)写(xie)(xie)作质(zhi)量(liang)自(zi)然也就提升了。

第二,扩大语(yu)(yu)料积累(lei),培育(yu)语(yu)(yu)言(yan)素养。语(yu)(yu)料积累(lei)就(jiu)是词汇,语(yu)(yu)句和(he)语(yu)(yu)法的(de)(de)(de)(de)积累(lei)。对(dui)(dui)于(yu)词汇选(xuan)用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)要(yao)求不仅是用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)对(dui)(dui),更要(yao)用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)传神(shen),例如,单就(jiu)“看”这个动作,英语(yu)(yu)中(zhong)就(jiu)有(you)stare盯着看,glimpse瞥见,peep偷看,glare怒(nu)目而视(shi)等(deng)数十种种含有(you)不同情绪色彩的(de)(de)(de)(de)表(biao)达(da)。对(dui)(dui)于(yu)语(yu)(yu)句的(de)(de)(de)(de)积累(lei),同学(xue)们要(yao)将目光转(zhuan)移到记叙文(wen)的(de)(de)(de)(de)写(xie)作手法上,如人(ren)物(wu)描(miao)(miao)(miao)写(xie)(肖像描(miao)(miao)(miao)写(xie),语(yu)(yu)言(yan)描(miao)(miao)(miao)写(xie),行(xing)动描(miao)(miao)(miao)写(xie),心理描(miao)(miao)(miao)写(xie)),环(huan)境(jing)描(miao)(miao)(miao)写(xie),细节(jie)描(miao)(miao)(miao)写(xie)等(deng)。此外,同学(xue)们要(yao)学(xue)会(hui)借力(li)修(xiu)辞(ci)手段和(he)名(ming)言(yan)警句,这些(xie)语(yu)(yu)料一(yi)定会(hui)成(cheng)为你某一(yi)次写(xie)作的(de)(de)(de)(de)神(shen)来之笔。至于(yu)一(yi)轮复(fu)习(xi)中(zhong)各个语(yu)(yu)法专题的(de)(de)(de)(de)复(fu)习(xi),切记我(wo)们学(xue)习(xi)语(yu)(yu)法绝不仅仅是为了那15分的(de)(de)(de)(de)语(yu)(yu)篇填空(kong)。每一(yi)项语(yu)(yu)法都有(you)自(zi)己(ji)所应用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)范围(wei),比(bi)如我(wo)们在对(dui)(dui)故(gu)事进行(xing)主题总(zong)结的(de)(de)(de)(de)时候(hou)就(jiu)会(hui)常常用(yong)到强调(diao)句,对(dui)(dui)于(yu)前文(wen)提(ti)到的(de)(de)(de)(de)故(gu)事,这样一(yi)句“It was the kindness of that family that made me believe that the world was filled with love.”就(jiu)可以很(hen)好的(de)(de)(de)(de)概括了文(wen)章(zhang)所想传达(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)主题;又如虚(xu)拟语(yu)(yu)气,在掌握其熟练(lian)运用(yong)后(hou),我(wo)们就(jiu)可以借其之力(li)来表(biao)达(da)多(duo)重情感,下面就(jiu)让我(wo)们来简单的(de)(de)(de)(de)品一(yi)品它的(de)(de)(de)(de)神(shen)奇(qi)。

If I hadn't met this kind family, I would still be stuck on the road.(感激)

If I had followed my teacher's advice, I could have passed the exam.(后悔)

How I wish everyone in the world could be as kind as they are.(愿望)

But for your carelessness, we should not have suffered such a great loss.(责备)

第三(san),多进行(xing)针(zhen)对(dui)读(du)后续(xu)写的(de)思(si)维拓(tuo)展。在一轮复习(xi)(xi)进程(cheng)中(zhong),同学们在认(ren)真每次的(de)实战之余(yu),不要忘记课本课文(wen)也是(shi)我们很好的(de)续(xu)写素材,比(bi)如对(dui)必修三(san)Unit 1 Festivals and celebrations单(dan)元中(zhong)A sad love story一文(wen)的(de)续(xu)写就是(shi)一次极佳的(de)练习(xi)(xi)机会。其(qi)次,同学们之间(jian)(jian)在课余(yu)时间(jian)(jian)或(huo)者(zhe)讨论(lun)时间(jian)(jian)可以自己组成读(du)后续(xu)写提(ti)升小组,针(zhen)对(dui)文(wen)本进行(xing)续(xu)写的(de)情(qing)节又或(huo)者(zhe)是(shi)某一争议性开放性影视(shi)作品某一时事的(de)结(jie)局走向进行(xing)讨论(lun)与语言特(te)征描述等(deng),依据已有信息进行(xing)头脑风暴,营造合作学习(xi)(xi)的(de)氛围,集思(si)广益、拓(tuo)宽(kuan)思(si)维。

(三(san))实(shi)战操作

1.前文(wen)阅读理解阶段

在阅读(du)前文(wen)时,要精读(du)细读(du),将文(wen)章(zhang)的线(xian)索梳理出来。只要可以找到(dao)线(xian)索,就可以“顺藤摸瓜”,确定文(wen)章(zhang)的主(zhu)题。对此(ci),大家要做的是要抓住(zhu)文(wen)章(zhang)中(zhong)的关键词,对其(qi)中(zhong)涉及(ji)到(dao)的时间、地点、人物(wu)和事件(jian)等(deng)作标记(ji),以方(fang)便(bian)后续(xu)的再次阅读(du)。

对此,大(da)家可(ke)以通过以下的顺序来进行阅读:确(que)定(ding)文(wen)章(zhang)(zhang)体裁→理(li)(li)解文(wen)章(zhang)(zhang)的内容→整理(li)(li)文(wen)章(zhang)(zhang)的结构→细(xi)化关键词与关键句→推(tui)理(li)(li)续写内容思路→做好下文(wen)续写的衔接→揣摩(mo)作(zuo)者(zhe)写作(zuo)前(qian)文(wen)时的语言(yan)情感,判(pan)断作(zuo)者(zhe)的态度(du)。

2.审(shen)题确定(ding)写作要求阶段

在审题阶(jie)段要(yao)明确续(xu)写要(yao)求,将需要(yao)罗(luo)列清楚后,方(fang)便(bian)写作(zuo)中一一对(dui)照。续(xu)写段落的首句提(ti)示,要(yao)与前文做好衔接,只有(you)审题认真,才(cai)能心中有(you)数,在续(xu)写内容(rong)中才(cai)能保持准确性(xing)。

3.谋划续写思路阶段

谋(mou)段(duan)阶段(duan)是(shi)确定续写(xie)思路的(de)重要(yao)阶段(duan),在(zai)(zai)精读和(he)审(shen)题准确的(de)基础上,以(yi)点(dian)连线(xian)开始(shi)梳(shu)理写(xie)作(zuo)(zuo)要(yao)点(dian),并以(yi)此(ci)为主线(xian),增(zeng)加一些次(ci)要(yao)情(qing)节来(lai)保证续写(xie)内容的(de)完整性(xing)(xing)与系统性(xing)(xing)。并在(zai)(zai)此(ci)阶段(duan)安排(pai)好(hao)句(ju)子(zi),避(bi)免(mian)在(zai)(zai)写(xie)作(zuo)(zuo)阶段(duan)面临词数不够或者(zhe)续写(xie)内容重心失衡的(de)问题。

4.拟写初稿阶段

要(yao)根据已有思(si)路拟写草稿,再根据两段首句(ju)(ju)提示语来进行复写,在这个阶段要(yao)保证句(ju)(ju)子的多样性以及语言的丰富(fu)性,并通过句(ju)(ju)与(yu)句(ju)(ju)之间连(lian)接(jie)词的正确使(shi)用,使(shi)上下文连(lian)贯。写作时要(yao)注意所用的人称(cheng)和时态(tai)要(yao)与(yu)原材料一致。

5.定稿阶(jie)段

在(zai)拟稿完(wan)成的(de)基(ji)础上,同学们要回到前文中(zhong)再次(ci)进行整体化(hua)的(de)阅(yue)读与(yu)检(jian)查,确定续(xu)写内(nei)(nei)容(rong)线索(suo)的(de)准(zhun)确性与(yu)内(nei)(nei)容(rong)的(de)一(yi)致性,避(bi)免前文与(yu)续(xu)写内(nei)(nei)容(rong)中(zhong)出现矛盾点(dian),做到内(nei)(nei)容(rong)连贯、语句(ju)(ju)通顺。如有可能(neng),再次(ci)进行高级句(ju)(ju)型与(yu)词(ci)汇的(de)转化(hua),最(zui)后在(zai)誊(teng)写环节时,要做到字迹工整,卷面清晰。


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